Generating Metamorphic Relations for Cyber-Physical Systems with Genetic Programming: An Industrial Case Study

Abstract—One of the major challenges in the verification of complex industrial Cyber-Physical Systems is the difficulty of determining whether a particular system output or behaviour is correct or not, the socalled test oracle problem. Metamorphic testing alleviates the oracle problem by reasoning on the relations that are expected to hold among multiple executions of the system under test, which are known as Metamorphic Relations (MRs). However, the development of effective MRs is often challenging and requires the involvement of domain experts. In this paper, we present a case study aiming at automating this process. To this end, we implemented GAssertMRs, a tool to automatically generate MRs with genetic programming. We assess the cost-effectiveness of this tool in the context of an industrial case study from the elevation domain. Our experimental results show that in most cases GAssertMRs outperforms the other baselines, including manually generated MRs developed with the help of domain experts. We then describe the lessons learned from our experiments and we outline the future work for the adoption of this technique by industrial practitioners.

Authors:
Jon Ayerdi, Valerio Terragni, Aitor Arrieta, Paolo Tonella, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: Proceedings of the 29th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE ’21)

Publisher: ACM

Relevant pages: 1264-1274

Year: 2021

QoS-aware Metamorphic Testing: An Elevation Case Study

Abstract—Elevators are among the oldest and most widespread transportation systems, yet their complexity increases rapidly to satisfy customization demands and to meet quality of service requirements. Verification and validation tasks in this context are costly, since they rely on the manual intervention of domain experts at some points of the process. This is mainly due to the difficulty to assess whether the elevators behave as expected in the different test scenarios, the so-called test oracle problem. Metamorphic testing is a thriving testing technique that alleviates the oracle problem by reasoning on the relations among multiple executions of the system under test, the so-called metamorphic relations. In this practical experience paper, we report on the application of metamorphic testing to verify an industrial elevator dispatcher. Together with domain experts from the elevation sector, we defined multiple metamorphic relations that consider domain-specific quality of service measures. Evaluation results with seeded faults show that the approach is effective at detecting faults automatically.

Authors:
Jon Ayerdi, Sergio Segura, Aitor Arrieta, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE)

Publisher: IEEE

Relevant pages: 104-114

Year: 2020

Microservices for Continuous Deployment, Monitoring and Validation in Cyber-Physical Systems: an Industrial Case Study for Elevators Systems

Abstract—Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are systems that integrate digital cyber computations with physical processes. The software embedded in CPSs has a long life-cycle, requiring constant evolution to support new requirements, bug fixes, and deal with hardware obsolescence. To date, the development of software for CPSs is fragmented, which makes it extremely expensive. This could be substantially enhanced by tightly connecting the development and operation phases, as is done in other software engineering domains (e.g., web engineering through DevOps). Nevertheless, there are still complex issues that make it difficult to use DevOps techniques in the CPS domain, such as those related to hardware-software co-design. To pave the way towards DevOps in the CPS domain, in this paper we instantiate part of the reference architecture presented in the H2020 Adeptness project, which is based on microservices that allow for the continuous deployment, monitoring and validation of CPSs. To this end, we elaborate a systematic methodology that considers as input both domain expertise and a previously defined taxonomy for DevOps in the CPS domain. We obtain a generic microservice template that can be used in any kind of CPS. In addition, we instantiate this architecture in the context of an industrial case study from the elevation domain.

Authors: Aitor Gartziandia, Jon Ayerdi, Aitor Arrieta; Shaukat Ali, Tao Yue, Aitor Agirre, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: IEEE 18th International Conference on Architecture Companion

Publisher: IEEE

Relevant pages: 46-53

Year: 2021

A Model-Based Test Script Generation Framework for Embedded Software

Abstract—The abstract test cases generated through model-based testing (MBT) need to be concretized to make them executable on the software under test (SUT). Multiple researchers proposed different solutions, e.g., by utilizing adapters for concretization of abstract test cases and generation of test scripts. In this paper, we propose our Model-Based Test scrIpt GenEration fRamework (TIGER) based on GraphWalker, an open source MBT tool. The framework is capable of generating test scripts for embedded software controlling functions of a cyber physical system such as passenger trains developed at Bombardier Transportation AB. The framework follows some defined mapping rules for the concretization of abstract test cases. We have evaluated the generated test scripts using an industrial case study in terms of fault detection. We have induced faults in the model of the SUT based on three mutation operators to generate faulty test scripts. The aim of generating faulty test scripts is to produce failed test steps and to guarantee the absence of faults in the SUT. Moreover, we have also generated the test scripts using the correct version of the model and executed it to analyse the behaviour of the generated test scripts in comparison with manually-written test scripts. The results show that the test scripts generated by GW using the proposed framework are executable, provide 100% requirements coverage and can be used to uncover faults at software-in-the-loop simulation level of sub-system testing.

Authors:Muhammad Nouman Zafar, Wasif Afzal, Eduard Paul Enoiu, Athanasios Stratis , Ola Sellin

Title of the source: The 17th International Workshop on Advances in Model Based Testing

Publisher: IEEE

Relevant pages: 192-198

Year: 2021

Cloud-Based Architectures for Model-Based Simulation Testing of Embedded Software

Abstract—Model-based testing (MBT) generates many test cases for validating a system under test against the user-defined requirements. Cloud computing provides powerful resources that can be utilised to execute these many test cases that would otherwise take much resources locally. Other benefits of utilizing cloud-based resources are elastic and on-demand, rapid provisioning and release of new, potentially value-adding services. Although cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) have provided the necessary technologies for successful cloud- based operation, it remains difficult to migrate and hence achieve the realisation of MBT as a service for traditional in-house testing operations, especially for embedded software. In this paper, we present a series of cloud-based architectures powered by AWS and an open-source MBT tool, GraphWalker. These architectures are realized at simulation testing stage for real-world embedded software and particularly cater for online MBT, whereby the model-based tool is deployed as a RESTful web service, accessible through a number of REST API commands. The presented architectures as well as their realization through AWS can be adopted in future for more advanced levels of simulation testing of embedded software.

Authors: Wasif Afzal, Amirali Piadehbasmenj

Title of the source: 9th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet of Things

Publisher: IEEE

Year: 2021

Using Machine Learning to Build Test Oracles: an Industrial Case Study on Elevators Dispatching algorithms

Abstract—The software of elevators requires maintenance over several years to deal with new functionality, correction of bugs or legislation changes. To automatically validate this software, test oracles are necessary. A typical approach in industry is to use regression oracles. These oracles have to execute the test input both, in the software version under test and in a previous software version. This practice has several issues when using simulation to
test elevators dispatching algorithms at system level. These issues include a long test execution time and the impossibility of re-using test oracles both at different test levels and in operation. To deal with these issues, we propose DARIO, a test oracle that relies on
regression learning algorithms to predict the Qualify of Service of the system. The regression learning algorithms of this oracle are trained by using data from previously tested versions. An empirical evaluation with an industrial case study demonstrates the feasibility of using our approach in practice. A total of five regression learning algorithms were validated, showing that the regression tree algorithm performed best. For the regression tree algorithm, the accuracy when predicting verdicts by DARIO ranged between 79 to 87%.

Authors: Aitor Arrieta, Jon Ayerdi, Miren Illarramendi, Aitor Agirre, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: 2nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Automation of Software Tests

Publisher: IEEE

Year: 2021

Using Regression Learners to Predict Performance Problems on Software Updates: a Case Study on Elevators Dispatching Algorithms

Remote software deployment and updating has long been common-
place in many different fields, but now, the increasing expansion of IoT and CPSoS (Cyber-Physcal System of Systems) has highlighted the need for additional mechanisms in these systems, to ensure the correct behaviour of the deployed software version after deployment. In this sense, this paper investigates the use of Machine Learning algorithms to predict acceptable behaviour in system performance of a new software release. By monitoring the real performance, eventual unexpected problems can be identified. Based on previous knowledge and actual run-time information, the proposed approach predicts the response time that can be considered acceptable for the new software release, and this information is used to identify problematic releases. The mechanism has been applied to the post-deployment monitoring of traffic algorithms in elevator systems. To evaluate the approach, we have used performance mutation testing, obtaining good results. This paper makes two contributions. First, it proposes several regression learners that have been trained with different types of traffic profiles to efficiently predict response time of the traffic dispatching algorithm. This prediction is then compared with the actual response time of the new algorithm release, and provides a verdict about its performance.Secondly, a comparison of the different learners is performed.

Authors: Aitor Gartziandia, Aitor Arrieta, Aitor Agirre, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing

Publisher: ACM

Relevant pages: 135-144

Year: 2021

DevOps4CPS-Testing 2021​

DevOps4CPS-Testing 2021

Blending best practice DevOps solutions with the development processes used for CPS to deliver software more rapidly and in a more secure manner are emerging and critical open challenges of both contemporary and future CPS development. 

The Adeptness project is hosting the DevOps4CPS-Testing Workshop on 16 April 2021, in conjunction with ICST 2021, to discuss current state-of-the-art in addressing these challenges and a path forward to move CPS testing to the next level within new innovations in DevOps tools and technologies.

Calls for papers have been published and more information is available from the DevOps4CPS-Testing Workshop website. The workshop will be chaired by Aitor Arrieta, from Mondragon University, and Skaukat Ali, from the Simula Research Laboratory, in conjunction with Sebastiano Panichella, from Zurich University of Applied Sciences, who is the Technical Director of the COSMOS project. 

The Adeptness project is pleased to collaborate in co-organizing the workshop with another Horizon 2020 research project called COSMOS, focused on designing and developing novel DevOps methodologies, techniques, and tools that will enable effective, continuous development and evolution of cyber-physical systems.

Anomaly Detection with Digital Twin in Cyber-Physical Systems

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are susceptible to various anomalies during their operations. Thus, it is important to detect such anomalies. Detecting such anomalies is challenging since it is uncertain when and where anomalies can happen. To this end, we present a novel approach called Anomaly deTection with digiTAl twIN (ATTAIN), which continuously and automatically builds a digital twin with live data obtained from a CPS for anomaly detection. ATTAIN builds a Timed Automaton Machine (TAM) as the digital representation of the CPS, and implements a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to detect anomalies. GAN uses a GCN-LSTM-based module as a generator, which can capture temporal and spatial characteristics of the input data and learn to produce realistic unlabeled fake samples. TAM labels these fake samples, which are then fed into a discriminator along with real labeled samples. After training, the discriminator is capable of distinguishing anomalous data from normal data with a high F1 score. To evaluate our approach, we used three publicly available datasets collected from three CPS testbeds. Evaluation results show that ATTAIN improved the performance of two state-of-art anomaly detection methods by 2.413%, 8.487% and 5.438% on average on the three datasets, respectively. Moreover, ATTAIN achieved on average 8.39% increase in the anomaly detection capability with digital twins as compared with an approach of not using digital twins.

Authors: Qinghua Xu, Shaukat Ali, Tao Yue

Title of the source: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing

Publisher: IEEE

Year: 2021

An Evaluation of Monte Carlo-Based Hyper-Heuristic for Interaction Testing of Industrial Embedded Software Applications

Hyper-heuristic is a new methodology for the adaptive hybridization of meta-heuristic algorithms to derive a general algorithm for solving optimization problems. This work focuses on the selection type of hyper-heuristic, called the exponential Monte Carlo with counter (EMCQ). Current implementations rely on the memory-less selection that can be counterproductive as the selected search operator may not (historically) be the best performing operator for the current search instance. Addressing this issue, we propose to integrate the memory into EMCQ for combinatorial t-wise test suite generation using reinforcement learning based on the Q-learning mechanism, called Q-EMCQ. The limited application of combinatorial test generation on industrial programs can impact the use of such techniques as Q-EMCQ. Thus, there is a need to evaluate this kind of approach against relevant industrial software, with a purpose to show the degree of interaction required to cover the code as well as finding faults. We applied Q-EMCQ on 37 real-world industrial programs written in Function Block Diagram (FBD) language, which is used for developing a train control management system at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB. The results show that Q-EMCQ is an efficient technique for test case generation. Additionally, unlike the t-wise test suite generation, which deals with the minimization problem, we have also subjected Q-EMCQ to a maximization problem involving the general module clustering to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. The results show the Q-EMCQ is also capable of outperforming the original EMCQ as well as several recent meta/hyper-heuristic including modified choice function, Tabu high-level hyper-heuristic, teaching learning-based optimization, sine cosine algorithm, and symbiotic optimization search in clustering quality within comparable execution time.

Authors: Bestoun S. Ahmed, Eduard Enoiu, Wasif Afzal, Kamal Z. Zamli

Title of the source: Journal of soft computing

Publisher: Springer

Relevant pages: 13929-13954

Year: 2020