Simuloop – Testing Framework for an Industrial Elevator System

ELEVATE is an industrial elevator simulator that can be applied to examine the performance of elevator installations and test scheduling algorithms in a realistic environment. Elevate is a GUI-based application and requires manual steps to perform simulations. In this thesis, we have designed, developed and implemented a program (Simuloop) to facilitate a simulator loop with Elevate. Simuloop enables automatic simulations without manual interference. We propose 2 experiments that apply Simuloop to generate demanding passenger traffic to test an industrial elevator dispatcher. We apply a genetic algorithm and reinforcement learning, respectively. Simuloop is used to give feedback to the algorithms by simulating the passenger traffic. The experiment with the genetic algorithm performs stochastic updates on a lunch peak profile with 948 passengers. The updates are based on varying the passenger weight, entry/exit time to identify patterns that yield a high waiting time. The algorithm is able to increase the average waiting time from 20 to 44.5 seconds. The experiment with reinforcement learning has higher requirements to Simuloop since it depends on frequent feedback to guide the learning. We design a small-scale experiment to train the algorithm to select the arrival and destination floors for passengers. The algorithm is able to increase the cumulative waiting time, suggesting that the experiment is applicable for the use case. Due to the limitations of the pipeline, we conclude that using reinforcement learning is unpractical. The experiments prove that Simuloop can successfully be applied for automatic testing of an elevator system. This opens up the opportunity for performing exhaustive testing without the need for manual steps.


Authors: Torbjørn Ruud

Title of the source: Master’s thesis

Publisher:  University of Oslo

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Year: 2021

Understanding Digital Twins for Cyber-Physical Systems: A Conceptual Model

Digital Twins (DTs) are revolutionizing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) in many ways, including their development and operation. The significant interest of industry and academia in DTs has led to various definitions of DTs and related concepts, as seen in many recently published papers. Thus, there is a need for precisely defining different DT concepts and their relationships. To this end, we present a conceptual model that captures various DT concepts and their relationships, some of which are from the published literature, to provide a unified understanding of these concepts in the context of CPSs. The conceptual model is implemented as a set of Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams and the concepts in the conceptual model are explained with a running example of an automated warehouse case study from published literature and based on the authors’ experience of working with the real CPS case study in previous projects.

Authors: Tao Yue, Paolo Arcaini and Shaukat Ali

Title of the source: 2021 10th International Symposium On Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation (ISoLA)

Publisher:  Springer

Relevant pages:  54-71

Year: 2021

Genetic Algorithm-based Testing of Industrial Elevators under Passenger Uncertainty

Elevators, as other cyber-physical systems, need to deal with uncertainty during their operation due to several factors such as passengers and hardware. Such uncertainties could affect the quality of service promised by elevators and in the worst case lead to safety hazards. Thus, it is important that elevators are extensively tested by considering uncertainty during their development to ensure their safety in operation. To this end, we present an uncertainty testing methodology supported with a tool to test industrial dispatching systems at the Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test level. In particular, we focus on uncertainties in passenger data and employ a Genetic Algorithm (GA) with specifically designed genetic operators to significantly reduce the quality of service of elevators, thus aiming to find uncertain situations that are difficult to extract by users. An initial experiment with an industrial dispatcher revealed that the GA significantly decreased the quality of service as compared to not considering uncertainties. The results can be used to further improve the implementation of dispatching algorithms to handle various uncertainties.

Joritz Galarraga, Aitor Arrieta Marcos, Shaukat Ali, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW)

Publisher:  IEEE

Relevant pages:  353-358

Year: 2021

Machine Learning-based Test Oracles for Performance Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems: an Industrial Case Study on Elevators Dispatching Algorithms

The software of systems of elevators needs constant maintenance to deal with new functionality, bug fixes or legislation changes. To automatically validate the software of these systems, a typical approach in industry is to use regression oracles, which execute test inputs both in the software version under test and in a previous software version. However, these practices require a long test execution time and cannot be re-used at different test phases. To deal with these issues, we propose DARIO, a test oracle that relies on regression machine-learning algorithms to detect both functional and non-functional problems of the system. The machine-learning algorithms of this oracle are trained by using data from previously tested versions to predict reference functional and non-functional performance
values of the new versions. An empirical evaluation with an industrial case study demonstrates the feasibility of using our approach. A total of five regression learning algorithms were validated by using mutation testing techniques. For the context of functional bugs, the accuracy when predicting verdicts by DARIO ranged between 95% to 98%, across the different scenarios proposed. For the context of non-functional bugs, were competitive too, having an accuracy when predicting verdicts by DARIO ranging between 83% to 87%.

Aitor Gartziandia, Aitor Arrieta, Jon Ayerdi, Miren Illarramendi, Aitor Agirre, Goiuria Sagardui, Maite Arratibel

Title of the source: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process


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Year: 2022